ISSN: 20509790
First published in 2014
3 issues per volume
Volume 4 Issue 1-2
Cover Date: July 2017
Frozen thought: Physical representations of power and the rebuilding of Ground Zero
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Authors:  Katherine C. Donahue 
DOI: 10.1386/jucs.4.1-2.283_1

Keywords
9/11,September 11,World Trade Center,Ground Zero,memory,Heroes,New York City,Lower Manhattan

Abstract
Buildings are metaphors for particular cultures and times. They are ‘frozen thought’. The World Trade Center complex in New York was a global hub of financial, insurance, and banking companies. The Twin Towers were the primary symbols of that hub. This article describes the changes in Lower Manhattan that occurred after 9/11, partly as a result of the attacks that September day, partly because the nature of communication and business transactions changed regardless of 9/11. The purpose of this area, as well as the narrative that expressed its global dominance, have both been altered. Physical aspects of financial power represented by large corporate offices and trading floors are no longer necessary. The financial firms in the World Trade Center diversified their offices, moving to Midtown (the ‘new Wall Street’) and to other states, at the same time that publishing and advertising companies, looking for cheaper rents, moved to Lower Manhattan. The World Trade Center buildings now have a different purpose, and a different narrative.
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